Like human health, animal health can be threatened by various pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites), some of which can also affect human health (zoonoses). ANSES contributes to the prevention and control of the major and emerging animal diseases affecting both farm animals and wildlife, and in doing so participates in the protection of public health. See our articles on certain animal diseases.
Bovine tuberculosis is an animal disease caused by a bacterium which is transmissible to humans. Both domestic and wild ruminants (mainly cattle and deer), as well as wild boar, badgers and foxes can be infected. Since 2001, France has been considered "officially free of bovine tuberculosis"; however each year about one hundred new outbreaks are reported in farms despite the control measures that have been implemented. Here we provide a presentation of the disease, its current status in France, and the role played by ANSES.
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that affect many different animal species and, in some cases, also humans. They can cause a wide range of diseases, but primarily infect the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. In terms of public health, the most well-known coronavirus is the virus that caused the SARS epidemic (severe acute respiratory syndrome). In September 2012, a novel coronavirus was detected in the Middle East in patients who had developed symptoms during the 2nd quarter of 2012. The origin of this virus has not yet been fully established. It is however very similar to the SARS-CoV virus, and to viruses that usually affect certain species of bats. One current hypothesis concerning the origin of the virus is that it adapted to one or more other animal species closer to humans, thus enabling human infection. This family of viruses is presented below, along with the work of the Agency on animal coronaviruses.
Rabies is a viral animal disease that can be transmitted to humans (also known as a zoonosis). The virus, found in the saliva of infected animals in the final phases of the disease, is generally transmitted to another animal or to a human through a bite. ANSES plays a major role in the French rabies surveillance scheme, in particular via its Nancy Laboratory For Rabies and Wildlife, which has been actively involved in rabies control efforts for 40 years. The Agency also assesses the various risks associated with rabies.
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