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Wastewater may contain pathogenic microorganisms and/or chemicals that are a risk for human health. Consequently it must be collected and treated before it can be discharged into the natural environment. In this context, ANSES provides support to the authorities in order to assess the health risks associated with sensitive uses (swimming, shellfish farming) located downstream of sewage discharges, it issues Opinions on projects to build sewage plants or on the discharges originating from them, and it produces expert appraisals (upon request by the supervisory authorities) on the effectiveness of non-mains wastewater treatment systems.